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The Temple Area. London, Ricke, G. Chicago, FIFAO Cairo, Excavations at Heliopolis II. Elephantine XI. Funde und Bauteile.
Kampagne, Archäologische Veröffentlichungen Faras V. The Pharaonic Inscriptions from Faras. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom , itself the most powerful period of Ancient Egypt.
Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant , reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan.
He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia , commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples, and monuments.
He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria.
At fourteen, he was appointed prince regent by his father, Seti I. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to restore possession of previously held territories lost to the Nubians and Hittites and to secure Egypt's borders.
He was also responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya. Though the Battle of Kadesh often dominates the scholarly view of Ramses II's military prowess and power, he nevertheless enjoyed more than a few outright victories over Egypt's enemies.
During his reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled some , men: a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence.
In his second year, Ramesses II decisively defeated the Sherden sea pirates who were wreaking havoc along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels travelling the sea routes to Egypt.
There probably was a naval battle somewhere near the mouth of the Nile, as shortly afterward, many Sherden are seen among the pharaoh's body-guard where they are conspicuous by their horned helmets having a ball projecting from the middle, their round shields, and the great Naue II swords with which they are depicted in inscriptions of the Battle of Kadesh.
His first campaign seems to have taken place in the fourth year of his reign and was commemorated by the erection of what became the first of the Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb near what is now Beirut.
The inscription is almost totally illegible due to weathering. Additional records tell us that he was forced to fight a Canaanite prince who was mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, and whose army subsequently, was routed.
Ramesses carried off the princes of Canaan as live prisoners to Egypt. Ramesses then plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute.
In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of the Amurru during his campaign in Syria.
The Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis.
The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypt's frontiers into Syria, and to emulate his father Seti I's triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier.
He also constructed his new capital, Pi-Ramesses. There he built factories to manufacture weapons, chariots, and shields, supposedly producing some 1, weapons in a week, about chariots in two weeks, and 1, shields in a week and a half.
After these preparations, Ramesses moved to attack territory in the Levant , which belonged to a more substantial enemy than any he had ever faced in war: the Hittite Empire.
Ramesses's forces were caught in a Hittite ambush and outnumbered at Kadesh when they counterattacked and routed the Hittites, whose survivors abandoned their chariots and swam the Orontes river to reach the safe city walls.
Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan while Syria fell into Hittite hands. Canaanite princes, seemingly encouraged by the Egyptian incapacity to impose their will and goaded on by the Hittites, began revolts against Egypt.
In the seventh year of his reign, Ramesses II returned to Syria once again. This time he proved more successful against his Hittite foes.
During this campaign he split his army into two forces. It then marched on to capture Moab. The other force, led by Ramesses, attacked Jerusalem and Jericho.
He, too, then entered Moab, where he rejoined his son. The reunited army then marched on Hesbon , Damascus , on to Kumidi , and finally, recaptured Upi the land around Damascus , reestablishing Egypt's former sphere of influence.
Ramesses extended his military successes in his eighth and ninth years. His armies managed to march as far north as Dapur,  where he had a statue of himself erected.
He laid siege to the city before capturing it. His victory proved to be ephemeral. In year nine, Ramesses erected a stele at Beth Shean.
After having reasserted his power over Canaan, Ramesses led his army north. A mostly illegible stele near Beirut , which appears to be dated to the king's second year, was probably set up there in his tenth.
Within a year, they had returned to the Hittite fold, so that Ramesses had to march against Dapur once more in his tenth year.
This time he claimed to have fought the battle without even bothering to put on his corslet , until two hours after the fighting began.
Six of Ramesses's youthful sons, still wearing their side locks , took part in this conquest. He took towns in Retenu ,  and Tunip in Naharin ,  later recorded on the walls of the Ramesseum.
The deposed Hittite king, Mursili III , fled to Egypt, the land of his country's enemy, after the failure of his plots to oust his uncle from the throne.
This demand precipitated a crisis in relations between Egypt and Hatti when Ramesses denied any knowledge of Mursili's whereabouts in his country, and the two empires came dangerously close to war.
The ensuing document is the earliest known peace treaty in world history. The peace treaty was recorded in two versions, one in Egyptian hieroglyphs , the other in Akkadian , using cuneiform script ; both versions survive.
Such dual-language recording is common to many subsequent treaties. This treaty differs from others, in that the two language versions are worded differently.
While the majority of the text is identical, the Hittite version says the Egyptians came suing for peace and the Egyptian version says the reverse.
The frontiers are not laid down in this treaty, but may be inferred from other documents. The harbour town of Sumur , north of Byblos , is mentioned as the northernmost town belonging to Egypt, suggesting it contained an Egyptian garrison.
No further Egyptian campaigns in Canaan are mentioned after the conclusion of the peace treaty. The Hittite king encouraged the Babylonian to oppose another enemy, which must have been the king of Assyria , whose allies had killed the messenger of the Egyptian king.
Ramesses II also campaigned south of the first cataract of the Nile into Nubia. When Ramesses was about 22, two of his own sons, including Amun-her-khepeshef , accompanied him in at least one of those campaigns.
By the time of Ramesses, Nubia had been a colony for years, but its conquest was recalled in decoration from the temples Ramesses II built at Beit el-Wali  which was the subject of epigraphic work by the Oriental Institute during the Nubian salvage campaign of the s ,  Gerf Hussein and Kalabsha in northern Nubia.
On the south wall of the Beit el-Wali temple, Ramesses II is depicted charging into battle against the Nubians in a war chariot, while his two young sons, Amun-her-khepsef and Khaemwaset, are shown behind him, also in war chariots.
A wall in one of Ramesses's temples says he had to fight one battle with the Nubians without help from his soldiers. There are no detailed accounts of Ramesses II's undertaking large military actions against the Libyans , only generalised records of his conquering and crushing them, which may or may not refer to specific events that were otherwise unrecorded.
It may be that some of the records, such as the Aswan Stele of his year 2, are harking back to Ramesses's presence on his father's Libyan campaigns.
Perhaps it was Seti I who achieved this supposed control over the region, and who planned to establish the defensive system, in a manner similar to how he rebuilt those to the east, the Ways of Horus across Northern Sinai.
By tradition, in the 30th year of his reign Ramesses celebrated a jubilee called the Sed festival. These were held to honour and rejuvenate the pharaoh's strength.
He had brought peace, maintained Egyptian borders, and built great and numerous monuments across the empire. His country was more prosperous and powerful than it had been in nearly a century.
Sed festivals traditionally were held again every three years after the 30th year; Ramasses II, who sometimes held them after two years, eventually celebrated an unprecedented 13 or Ramesses built extensively throughout Egypt and Nubia, and his cartouches are prominently displayed even in buildings that he did not construct.
He covered the land from the Delta to Nubia with buildings in a way no monarch before him had. It previously had served as a summer palace during Seti I's reign.
His memorial temple, known today as the Ramesseum , was just the beginning of the pharaoh's obsession with building.
When he built, he built on a scale unlike almost anything before. The population was put to work changing the face of Egypt.
In Thebes, the ancient temples were transformed, so that each one of them reflected honour to Ramesses as a symbol of his putative divine nature and power.
Ramesses decided to eternalize himself in stone, and so he ordered changes to the methods used by his masons. The elegant but shallow reliefs of previous pharaohs were easily transformed, and so their images and words could easily be obliterated by their successors.
Ramesses insisted that his carvings be deeply engraved into the stone, which made them not only less susceptible to later alteration, but also made them more prominent in the Egyptian sun, reflecting his relationship with the sun deity, Ra.
Ramesses constructed many large monuments, including the archaeological complex of Abu Simbel , and the Mortuary temple known as the Ramesseum.
He built on a monumental scale to ensure that his legacy would survive the ravages of time. Ramesses used art as a means of propaganda for his victories over foreigners, which are depicted on numerous temple reliefs.
Ramesses II erected more colossal statues of himself than any other pharaoh, and also usurped many existing statues by inscribing his own cartouche on them.
Ramesses II moved the capital of his kingdom from Thebes in the Nile valley to a new site in the eastern Delta.
His motives are uncertain, although he possibly wished to be closer to his territories in Canaan and Syria. The new city of Pi-Ramesses or to give the full name, Pi -Ramesses Aa-nakhtu , meaning "Domain of Ramesses, Great in Victory"  was dominated by huge temples and his vast residential palace, complete with its own zoo.
The rest is buried in the fields. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus marveled at the gigantic temple, now no more than a few ruins.
Oriented northwest and southeast, the temple was preceded by two courts. An enormous pylon stood before the first court, with the royal palace at the left and the gigantic statue of the king looming up at the back.
Scenes of the great pharaoh and his army triumphing over the Hittite forces fleeing before Kadesh are represented on the pylon.
Remains of the second court include part of the internal facade of the pylon and a portion of the Osiride portico on the right.
Scenes of war and the alleged rout of the Hittites at Kadesh are repeated on the walls. In the upper registers , feast and honor of the phallic deity Min , god of fertility.
On the opposite side of the court the few Osiride pillars and columns still remaining may furnish an idea of the original grandeur.
Scattered remains of the two statues of the seated king also may be seen, one in pink granite and the other in black granite, which once flanked the entrance to the temple.
They are decorated with the usual scenes of the king before various deities. Ramesses's children appear in the procession on the few walls left.
The sanctuary was composed of three consecutive rooms, with eight columns and the tetrastyle cell.
Part of the first room, with the ceiling decorated with astral scenes, and few remains of the second room are all that is left.
Vast storerooms built of mud bricks stretched out around the temple. A temple of Seti I , of which nothing remains beside the foundations, once stood to the right of the hypostyle hall.
It is an ego cast in stone; the man who built it intended not only to become Egypt's greatest pharaoh, but also one of its deities.
An enormous pile of sand almost completely covered the facade and its colossal statues, blocking the entrance for four more years.
As well as the temples of Abu Simbel, Ramesses left other monuments to himself in Nubia. His early campaigns are illustrated on the walls of Beit el-Wali now relocated to New Kalabsha.
The tomb of the most important consort of Ramesses was discovered by Ernesto Schiaparelli in National Geographic. April 30, Retrieved A 3,year-old mummy that many scholars believe is ancient Egypt's King Ramses I is the star attraction of an exhibit at the Michael C.
Carlos Museum in Atlanta that will run from April 26 to September Niagara Falls Review. Archived from the original on October 26, An ancient Egyptian mummy thought to be that of Pharaoh Ramses I has returned home after more than years in North American museums.
Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre. Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib. Tefnakht Bakenranef. Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Stone head carving of Paramessu Ramesses I , originally part of a statue depicting him as a scribe; on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Ra-messes Re has fashioned him . Kanakht Wadj neswt Mighty bull, he who rejuvenates the royalty. Kha m neswt mj jtm He who appears as a king, like Atum.